Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP





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Buy Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection , USP is a nonbarbiturate anesthetic chemically designated (±)-2-(o-Chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino) cyclohexanone hydrochloride. It is formulated as a slightly acid (pH 3.5 to 5.5) sterile solution for intravenous or intramuscular injection in concentrations containing the equivalent of 50 or 100 mg ketamine base per milliliter and contains not more than 0.1 mg/mL benzethonium chloride added as a preservative. Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP has the following structural formula:Buy  Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP, Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP for sale.

structural formula

Molecular Formula: C13H16ClNO • HCl                                   Molecular Weight: 274.19


Ketamine is a rapid-acting general anesthetic producing an anesthetic state characterized by profound analgesia, normal pharyngeal-laryngeal reflexes, normal or slightly enhanced skeletal muscle tone, cardiovascular and respiratory stimulation, and occasionally a transient and minimal respiratory depression. The mechanism of action is primarily due to antagonism of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors) in the central nervous system.

A patent airway is maintained partly by virtue of unimpaired pharyngeal and laryngeal reflexes.

The biotransformation of ketamine includes N-dealkylation (metabolite I), hydroxylation of the cyclohexone ring (metabolites III and IV), conjugation with glucuronic acid and dehydration of the hydroxylated metabolites to form the cyclohexene derivative (metabolite II).

Following intravenous administration, the ketamine concentration has an initial slope (alpha phase) lasting about 45 minutes with a half-life of 10 to 15 minutes. This first phase corresponds clinically to the anesthetic effect of the drug. The anesthetic action is terminated by a combination of redistribution from the CNS to slower equilibrating peripheral tissues and by hepatic biotransformation to metabolite I. This metabolite is about 1/3 as active as ketamine in reducing halothane requirements (MAC) of the rat. The later half-life of ketamine (beta phase) is 2.5 hours.

The anesthetic state produced by ketamine has been termed “dissociative anesthesia” in that it appears to selectively interrupt association pathways of the brain before producing somatesthetic sensory blockade. It may selectively depress the thalamoneocortical system before significantly obtunding the more ancient cerebral centers and pathways (reticular-activating and limbic systems).

Elevation of blood pressure begins shortly after injection, reaches a maximum within a few minutes and usually returns to preanesthetic values within 15 minutes after injection. In the majority of cases, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure peaks from 10% to 50% above preanesthetic levels shortly after induction of anesthesia, but the elevation can be higher or longer in individual cases

Ketamine has a wide margin of safety; several instances of unintentional administration of overdoses of ketamine (up to ten times that usually required) have been followed by prolonged but complete recovery.

Ketamine has been studied in over 12,000 operative and diagnostic procedures, involving over 10,000 patients from 105 separate studies.

INDICATIONS AND HOW TO USE   Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP

Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is indicated as the sole anesthetic agent for diagnostic and surgical procedures that do not require skeletal muscle relaxation. Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is best suited for short procedures but it can be used, with additional doses, for longer procedures.

Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is indicated for the induction of anesthesia prior to the administration of other general anesthetic agents.

Ketamine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is indicated to supplement low-potency agents, such as nitrous oxide.

Ketamine is clinically compatible with the commonly used general and local anesthetic agents when an adequate respiratory exchange is maintained. mango juul pods

The regimen of a reduced dose of ketamine supplemented with diazepam can be used to produce balanced anesthesia by combination with other agents such as nitrous oxide and oxygen. juul

Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration, whenever solution and container permit. juul

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